Scholar G. R. Berridge (2002) defined diplomacy as “an essentially political activity. . . . Its chief purpose is to enable states to secure the objectives of their foreign policies without resort to force, propaganda, or law” (p. 1). But this definition may be too limited, as truly effective diplomacy may not resort to the use of force; but certainly the threat of force, law and legal argument, the use of culture, economics, and persuasion are tactics that the United States and other governments have used as part of their diplomatic efforts.

Diplomacy is one instrument among many that a government utilizes in its pursuit of the national interest and to promote and protect national security. Most commonly, these instruments of statecraft are referred to using ...

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