China is the world’s most populous country, with over 1.35 billion people, which is about one-fifth of the people in the world. The domestic term for the present economic system is “socialism with Chinese characteristics,” based in part on a reinterpretation of Marx that is at odds with the interpretation utilized by Mao and the Soviets. China has considerable resources to draw upon in scientific research. The major funding institution for scientific research is the Ministry of Science and Technology, which administers the funding of various programs, such as the National Basic Research Program, National High-Tech Research and Development Program, and National Key Technologies R&D Program. The major scientific institution is the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a national academy devoted to the natural sciences, ...

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