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R is a free, open-source programming language used by students, researchers, and industry experts worldwide to conduct statistical analyses and construct statistical graphics. Despite the rapid changes to data science over the years, one constant has been R. One reason for R’s stability in use is that it has also evolved. In addition to the frequent improvements and updates the development team makes to the source code, users are regularly creating new packages and functions for others to use. In this entry, specific commands and packages in R are italicized in Courier font. For example, mean() is a command in R used to calculate the mean. The phrase base R will refer to any commands that are available upon downloading R (i.e., no additional packages ...

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