Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Gender

The ongoing battle with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an individual and a public health concern. In his work examining the burden of PTSD on the individual and society, Ronald Kessler identified the following burdens: (a) medical costs, (b) occupational impairment, (c) functional ability impairment, (d) treatment costs, and (e) psychological burden. To begin addressing this issue, accurate research, diagnosing, and treatment are necessary. As part of its effort to update the research and diagnostic criteria of all psychiatric disorders, the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), includes information about PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD include direct exposure to a trauma, the experiencing of an intrusive symptom such as distress or flashbacks, the evasion of stimuli linked to the ...

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