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The concept of peacemaking is one of the triumvirate of tasks involved in resolving international and civil wars and violence. It concerns stopping the physical fighting so that efforts toward establishing the bases of a lasting peace can take place. The next two steps are generally considered to be peacekeeping, that is, dispatching neutral forces or observers to preserve the cease-fire by separating and mediating between the previous combatants; and peace building, where steps are taken to rebuild the war-torn society and lay the foundation for reconstruction, repatriation of refugees, resumption of effective governance, reconciliation of the warring factions, and enduring peace. For the last step to be effective, peace theorists argue that the parties must get beyond their clashing positions on specific issues to ...

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