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The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used psychometric test for the construct of narcissism as a personality trait. The NPI measures, on a continuum, the degree to which a person thinks and acts narcissistically across various situations. This measure is often used to study populations at a subclinical level, meaning that a high score on the NPI should not be confused with clinical Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), which is a cluster B personality disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with one’s own adequacy, power, and vanity that disrupts daily functioning. High scores on the NPI, by contrast, could reflect a still healthy level of self-absorption, that is often more inconvenient to those around the individual rather than the individual themselves. Alternatively, those who ...

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