Located in Eastern Europe, Romania is a semi-presidential republic with a population of 22,194,000. From a historical point of view, Romania’s mass media’s development has been determined by different legal economic stipulations: Between 1947 and 1990, the major media holder was the state. After 1989, the Romanian monocentric media system, centrally controlled by the political power, was gradually replaced by a demonopolized and free-market-oriented system. Romania’s media development has experienced the dual phenomenon of fragmentation–concentration: fragmentation refers to the media share, the audience, and concentration is about the volume of capital invested in the media domain. The result is the setting up of press groups or media-moguls, which are of two main types: Romanian owned and foreign investors. This entry provides an overview of media ...

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