The concept of fairness refers to the impartial distribution of resources or a culturally determined just procedure of allocating goods in a group, organization, or society. Fairness is regarded as one of the most important foundations of morality and social norms, which guides how people should treat one another, especially when allocating limited resources. Fairness is essential to foster effective social cooperation and to promote individual well-being. Severe unfairness within a social group can cause social conflict and undermine cooperation. Individuals treated unfairly may have negative emotions such as anger and frustration. Long periods of unfair treatment may lead to health problems. Research on fairness concerns and behaviors is critical to understand when and why individuals can overcome motives of self-interest and promote social harmony ...

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