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Resilience, Learning Disorders and

Academic achievement is considered a marker of successful adaptation and development throughout most of childhood and adolescence. Learning difficulties can interfere with healthy development during this time, and this risk is increased for individuals with learning disorders. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines a specific learning disorder as a neurodevelopmental disorder that interferes with the ability to learn or use academic skills; this includes difficulties in reading, writing, arithmetic, or mathematical reasoning skills during the school-age years. These persistent difficulties are deemed “unexpected” because they are not explained by other developmental delays or neurological issues. Learning disorders, commonly referred to as learning disabilities, represent the largest population of students served by the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), ...

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