Throughout this entry, the words parent or parents are used. These terms refer to the adults in children’s families who act as the primary caretakers and decision makers. Although these individuals are often biological parents, the information outlined herein applies equally well to those individuals who are parents through other circumstances including adoption, fostering, and being extended family members with child-rearing responsibilities. This entry examines how level of parental interaction, child development, child temperament, common social and economic stressors, and a child’s level of ability affect parental adjustment.

Parental Interaction

Individuals tend to have specific styles of interaction as parents. Although different researchers categorize parenting styles in somewhat different ways, parenting styles have generally been defined based on characteristics such as the amount of physical and psychological ...

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