Microcephaly refers to a condition in which one’s head size is smaller than the norm for the person’s age and gender. The term microcephaly derives from the Greek words mikros (small) and kephalos (head), thus literally meaning “small head.” Microcephaly is not a single disease entity but rather a physical sign associated with many disorders. Microcephaly is often associated with neurological morbidities such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. Some of the conditions associated with microcephaly may also affect organs outside the brain. Therefore, it is important to recognize microcephaly early, determine its underlying cause, and address potential associated morbidities.

Clinically, a diagnosis of microcephaly is made by measuring one’s occipital frontal circumference (OFC, also referred to as head circumference) and comparing ...

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