A concussion is a traumatic brain injury caused by a bump, hit, or jolt to the head or body that puts the brain in motion within the skull resulting in shearing of neurons or bruising secondary to the brain’s making contact with the hard surfaces inside the skull. This acceleration and deceleration of the brain usually results in a disruption of the metabolic functioning of the brain and at times physically damages the neurons and glia cells that make up the brain. The effects of this type of neurological dysfunction are typically not evident on X-rays or CT scans, because a concussion affects how the brain functions and not how the structure of the brain looks.

These functional changes produce some common signs and symptoms associated ...

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