A well-developed brain is essential for the acquisition of higher mental functions, and accordingly, understanding neuroscience has become a cornerstone for correlating neuroanatomical knowledge with mental function in clinical disciplines. For purposes of description, the nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the PNS is made up of spinal and cranial nerves. The brain structures develop from three primary embryonic vesicles—prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon—and five secondary embryonic vesicles, all of which are developed by the fourth embryonic week (see Table 1). This entry describes the different parts of the CNS and related structures of the brain. It also briefly discusses the PNS.

Table 1 Brain ...
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