Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that involves involuntary interruptions to the flow of speech. Those interruptions can include repeating sounds or syllables, prolonging of sounds, or total pauses or blocks in speech production. For some, stuttering can involve involuntary movements of facial muscles and limbs. Stuttering onset is typically during the preschool years, usually after a period of normal speech and language development. The prevalence rate for adolescents and adults is around 1% of the population.

Adolescence presents as a distinct and turbulent stage of development. Social and emotional changes coincide with decreased reliance on parents and increased independence. Adolescents (i.e., those between the ages of 12 and 18) become more influenced by their peers, and they increasingly desire to conform to group ...

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