Stuttering is a complex condition that can affect all aspects of an individual’s life. Although listeners tend to identify stuttering primarily as a disorder involving disruptions in the production of speech (or disfluencies, such as repetitions, prolongations, and blocks), the difficulties that a person who stutters experiences in producing sounds and words can have a much broader impact on their communication abilities and on their lives as a whole. For example, people who stutter may experience negative emotional and cognitive reactions to stuttering, including feelings of embarrassment, shame, anxiety, depression, isolation, loneliness, or frustration. They may experience behavioral reactions, such as physical tension and struggle prior to or during moments of stuttering, as well as avoidance of sounds, words, or speaking situations as they attempt ...

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