Bologna Process and European Higher Education Area

The Bologna Process, launched in 1999, has been recognised as an ambitious and significant effort to create a regional higher education space in Europe based on ‘voluntary’ compliance with common structures and values. Over two decades, it has transformed the structures of European higher education whilst there remains significant national variance. This entry explains the process, why a voluntary process was chosen, the achievements of the first and second decades, and how researchers see the process.

The Bologna Process: A Brief History

The Bologna Process works through mutual higher education cooperation to enhance the educational, cultural, and scientific strengths of Europe, reinforce the innovatory capacity of a knowledge economy, underpin shared values, and contribute to the development and strengthening of stable, peaceful, and democratic societies. It began ...

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