Significant variation is found worldwide in the nature of upper secondary education, in particular, in the extent to which young people take academic or vocational tracks, the degree of choice of subjects and courses open to them, and the number of subjects they take. This variation is reflected in the kinds of leaving certification offered to young people, that is, in the type of qualification they receive on completion of upper secondary education. This entry explores the main characteristics of leaving certification across different educational systems and the consequences of this certification for student access to higher education.

Characteristics of Leaving Certification

The content of upper secondary certification can be highly individualised, reflecting the kinds of subjects chosen by students, or relatively standardised if certain required subjects ...

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