In 1990, Canadian researchers Donald Andrews, James Bonta and Robert Hoge proposed three principles that would form the foundation for all effective correctional programming. That is, they outlined the three necessary conditions needed in interventions and treatments for offenders in order to reduce risk of reoffending as well as reduce recidivism (reoffending) rates. This model is known as the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model of effective correctional treatment. The core of the RNR model is targeting treatment on criminogenic needs (i.e., crime-causing factors).

The risk principle identifies who should receive the most treatment (i.e., the most intensive treatment services should be directed to the highest risk offenders, and low-risk offenders should receive minimum intensity programming). The responsivity principle describes how the treatment should unfold (e.g., use empirically supported ...

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