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Borders are geographic boundaries that demarcate the territory of a political entity, usually a nation-state. Borders are not fixed entities; rather, they are connected to the historical creation of nation-states, and they have always maintained fluidity because of wars and political conflicts as well as other forms of geopolitical restructuring (e.g., fall of the Iron Curtain, the creation and expansion of the European Union).

Although the forces of globalization have eased and accelerated the movement of people, goods, and information across borders, national borders remain relevant because debates about identity, citizenship, and security continue. The bourgeoning, interdisciplinary field of border studies has gained momentum since the 1990s and is evidence of the centrality of borders in social sciences. The purpose of this entry is to ...

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