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The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, actually titled the Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, is most commonly referred to as the Bender-Gestalt Test. It was published in 1938 by Lauretta Bender, a psychiatrist, to aid in psychological, neurological, and educational assessments.

The test consists of nine geometric designs drawn from the research of the Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, who used them to study the perceptual principles underlying people’s ability to see constellations of stimuli as organized wholes. Whereas Wertheimer asked the participants to describe the designs, Bender printed them on cards and presented them to examinees with the instruction to copy them with pencil and paper. Her focus was on how the drawings of clinical populations with psychopathological and neurological disorders differed from those of normally functioning individuals. ...

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