Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of how psychological, neural, and immunologic processes interact and shape human health and behavior. Whereas classic views of the immune system largely focused on its autonomous regulation, bidirectional communication occurs between the immune system and central nervous system, and characteristics of the external physical and social environment strongly influence immune system activity. Indeed, immunological processes that are relevant for health are influenced by internal factors and by the perceptions of individuals about their external social and physical environment. Conversely, given the ability of immune cell products to alter neural function, immune processes can affect behavior and emotion. Hence, psychoneuroimmunology informs the development of novel interventions for improving human health, and behavioral interventions that target the specific psychoneuroimmunological factors that strongly ...

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