Richard S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman define coping as the consequence of an individual’s appraisal of an event as a threat and the perceived ability or resources to deal with the event. Coping is an interaction between the individual who has set resources, commitment, and values and the individual’s particular environment, which has its own resources, constraints, and demands. Generally, coping efforts center on five main tasks: (1) to reduce the harmful environment, (2) to tolerate or adjust to negative events or realities, (3) to maintain a positive self-image or self-efficacy, (4) to maintain emotional equilibrium, and (5) to continue satisfying relationships with others. There exist volumes of research on individuals’ coping with chronic illness, with a large body of this research focusing on coping ...

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