The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice


Edited by: Kirk J. Schneider, J. Fraser Pierson & James F. T. Bugental

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Historical Overview

    Part II: Humanistic Theory

    Part III: Humanistic Methodology

    Part IV: Humanistic Applications to Practice

    Part V: Humanistic Applications to Broader Settings

    Part VI: Epilogue: Looking Back and Looking Forward

  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to our late mentor and coeditor, James Bugental. Jim's landmark work, Challenges of Humanistic Psychology, inspired the present volume. His presence, patience, and clarity inspired our lives.



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    Foreword to the Second Edition


    Humanistic psychology continuously and awesomely shines forth and expands on its hub of foundations. There remain influences from Eastern wisdom and others derived from the majestic age of Greek philosophy; there too are linkages from personal intuition and, finally, studies and experimentations leading to the thrill of discovery. Involved too are unique new personal meanings derived from the bipolarity of constructs, wisdom drawn from existentialism and phenomenology, hope and tragedy born into romantic appreciation, and profound intersubjective sensibilities drawn by way of enhanced personal responsibility. Dating the main tracks that have influenced humanistic psychology can be an awkwardly speculative project—less so its splendid emergence by way of the American experience. Gertrude Stein dubbed America the oldest country in the world since it was apparently the first to enter the 20th century. Once born, it induced on its shores a democratic humanistic emphasis. America offered a perfect climate for the emergence of a distinctive humanistic psychology just as its founders so elegantly counterpoised individualism with social awareness.

    As psychology boldly and perhaps a bit precipitously left the breast of philosophy, what was to become known as humanistic psychology would eventually and fortuitously return to its philosophic underpinnings. Out of the discontentment with behavioral and psychoanalytic determinism and their all too comfortable alliance with medical-model diagnostics, this humanistic “third force” in psychology did emerge. Prepared to commit to the primacy of the experience, this psychology of the whole being called forth a dynamic view of personal authenticity and responsibility. The new frontiers had been cast by the transcendental idealism of Thoreau, Emerson, and Margaret Fuller and, at length, infused with William James's boundless pragmatism. This ethos eventually gave rise to three seminal figures in humanistic psychology: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. Each, with his unique appreciation of the totality of experience, helps enlarge the repertoire of personal potentialities.

    Soon enough, some humanistic psychologists embarked on qualitative research, suggesting the Jamesian “will to personate” and stressing Gordon Allport's individual dynamic organization. Events drawn and parsed from intimate personal accounts shaped this shift to qualitative inquiries. Emphasis was placed on what is distinctive about the person. Often dispensing with genetic criteria, humanistic research seeks to know more about personal meaning. Multimodal investigations, integrating qualitative and quantitative methodologies, have likewise been deployed as a means of fostering extended comprehensibility.

    Humanistic psychology in its coherence with philosophic matters is steeped in ontological foundations. Rather than lay emphasis on classical psychiatric constructs, psychotherapists identified with humanistic psychology are less inclined to envision a person as categorically belonging to a diagnostically determined grouping. In a time in which mood swings, obsessiveness, anxiety, and such are assigned as conclusive descriptors, humanistic psychotherapists commit to a view of the person that is essentially reverential and respectful. Deviations from the norm are likely to be seen as complex attempts at coping with an otherwise alien sense of existence. By contrast, the practice of addressing standardized psychopathological descriptors leads to establishment psychology's search for empirically proven corrective cognitive strategies. Moreover a growing movement to train and certify clinical psychologists to prescribe psychotropic medications has further polarized the paradigms. Humanistic psychologists and allied practitioners value the exceptional personalized arenas in which people may play out their respective dramas.

    There is a disquieting concern that humanistic psychology tends to emphasize the optimistic at the expense of evading emotional darkness. As seen by Carl Rogers, malevolence is hardly native to what it means to be human, while Rollo May considered that demonic aspects play an essential role in the psyche. Paradoxical as these two positions are, most would surely agree that there can be no heaven without a hell. Those wise in the art of psychotherapy might be inclined to agree that there are no unmixed emotions and no endeavors without mixed motives. A key factor in understanding what inquiry means through the eye of humanistic psychology is not only to see things as they are but to revere the experiences from which they emerge and thus to be inspired by the challenges they create. The resulting humanistic awakening as it is represented in psychotherapy is that unwavering enterprise through which both therapist and client strive to marshal their differing emotional heritages in order to better connect with their common humanity.

    How phenomena are, how they are experienced, and why they are mattered to the earlier masters of humanistic psychology as well. Toward the end of his life, Maslow was brought to the Salk Institute as a fellow in humanistic biology. When asked to critique the efficacy of various experimental research projects involving rats as subjects, he speculated that the key hidden variable is whether a particular research scientist happened to like or dislike handling the rats.

    And so it is that what humanistic psychology has to offer is, first and foremost, a running critique of absolutist notions of what consciousness is all about. Even as the neurosciences configure the workings of brain specificity, humanistic psychology questions how a portrayal of fragments is capable of accounting for any full orchestration of consciousness.

    I am very heartened by the contributions of the various researchers and practitioners represented in this Handbook of Humanistic Psychology. Together they comprise a panel of penetrating explorers of the multiroutings of an extended contemporary humanistic psychology. Refocusing psychology, as this collection so inspiringly does, emphasizes an awakening and transformation of consciousness into dynamic experience. While diverse in their vantage points, taken as a whole, they weave an exquisite unity. As a collective of scholarly intimacy, this second edition of The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology welcomes the reader into stimulating conversation with a varied company of compatriots.

    E.MarkStern, EdD, ABPPProfessor Emeritus, Graduate Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY

    Foreword to the First Edition


    We live in a time of enormous and pervasive change and challenge—a time of “raging chaos.” It is clear that our old ways of being and doing no longer work and that our old myths neither hold our allegiance nor hold promise for solving our problems. As Albert Einstein once observed, “No problem can be solved from the same consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.”

    It is fitting, therefore, that a new book on humanistic psychology usher in our new millennium. It feeds our hunger for a new vision and a new way of being.

    Humanistic psychology first came to my attention when my own pain and confusion shocked me out of my old beliefs and tested my sense of myself. I began a search for something to make sense of my life. That search led me to a series of workshops, during one memorable year, with Sidney Jourard, Abraham Maslow, James Bugental, James Fadiman, Rollo May, John Heider, and Carl Rogers. Those experiences saved my life, and they profoundly inform all of my social involvement and politics.

    The futurist Willis Harman has identified three profound revolutions that shattered our old ways of being: (1) when Galileo and Copernicus recognized that the earth revolves around the sun (and not vice versa), (2) when Darwin recognized the evolution of species, and (3) when Freud recognized the internal dimensions within us humans. In each case, worlds came apart, we found ourselves in raging chaos, and then there arose a new order.

    Today's “new Copernican revolution” amounts to a most profound shift in our view of our own selves, from a fundamentally negative view of human nature to a fundamentally positive one. In a break from the long traditions of original sin, where we needed to be tamed, we now sense ourselves alive with original grace, needing to be nurtured.

    This radical idea upends all that has been constructed on the old foundation. It amounts to a total revolution. It was hinted at by Jourard, who proposed that we become “transparent selves.” It gained credence with Bugental's observance of “the search for authenticity.” It was given voice by Rogers in his famous aphorism: “I've been doing psychology for more than 50 years, and I've come to believe that we human beings are innately inclined toward becoming life affirming, constructive, responsible, and trustworthy.” It was elaborated by May when he argued that the utterly free human will should naturally be responsible. It was confirmed by Maslow when he identified our possible “democratic character structure,” in which one's intellect, emotions, and body are liberated and altogether integrated into one's becoming a whole person.

    What do these eloquent formulations amount to? A new revolution. Whereas the first American Revolution established our right to self-determination, this next revolution demands self-actualization. Simply said, the humanistic view of the self must become the organizing vision and ethic of our times and of our lives.

    According to the 2000 book The Cultural Creatives, fully one quarter of American adults already have enlisted themselves, however (un)consciously, in this revolution.

    Humanistic psychology offers us the most faithful, hopeful, and loving human path toward our own wholeness and for addressing the most pressing social issues of our times. The present volume introduces us to ourselves and to visions and practices for our lives. Such visions and practices lead to engagements in social action that are grounded in faith, abound with hope, and relate in love.

    There is almost nothing as powerful as an idea whose time has come, and this volume demonstrates that our time has come for humanistic psychology. May this book, comprising the very latest in humanistic scholarship, serve to both enlighten and empower us. And may it lead us toward a fully realized human nature in our new millennium.

    JohnVasconcellosCalifornia State Senator
    Ray, P.H., & Anderson, S.R. (2000). The cultural creatives. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.


    KirkJ.Schneider and J.FraserPierson

    It has now been 13 years since the original publication of the Handbook of Humanistic Psychology, and important changes have taken place in our field. For one, our dear friend, mentor, and coeditor, Jim Bugental, passed away on September 18, 2008. Jim, as readers of this original volume know, was the inspiration for the Handbook and, in no small way, of existential-humanistic psychology itself. We dearly miss Jim and are proud to extend his legacy with this trailblazing new edition. We also would like to recognize our other cherished friends and colleagues who have departed from us over the past 13 years (a few of whom contributed to this volume) and, with their departure, left an indelible mark on our humanistic field. Among these cherished people are Jim's beloved wife and pioneer in humanistic eldercare, Elizabeth Bugental, as well as Maurice Friedman, David Rennie, Mike Arons, George Leonard, Michael Mahoney, Thomas Szasz, Brewster Smith, Ernest Keen, Clark Moustakas, Arne Collen, Jeannie Achterberg, and Eugene Taylor.

    A second noteworthy development concerns the shifts within psychology as a whole. Neuropsychology, for example, has been on a rapid ascent, while classical psychoanalysis has been on a precipitous decline; multicultural psychology has played an increasingly integral role in everything from research to assessment, while traditional conceptions of the masterful, well-bounded self have dwindled; spirituality has become more prominent, while behaviorism has waned; and finally, the virtual world of Facebook and Twitter, text messaging, and designer drugs have burgeoned, while solitude and introspection appear to be on the wane.

    On the other hand, humanistic psychology has been making major inroads in networking with the wider psychological world. As will be seen in the revised introduction, humanistic psychology is now a growing influence from Europe to Asia and in fields as disparate as psychotherapy and social and political psychology. In the United States, humanistic psychology is influencing the new emphasis on personal factors in mainstream psychotherapy, the growing interest in qualitative research, and the burgeoning attraction to the psychology of well-being and spirituality.

    In this new volume, there have been 13 new chapters and sections added, along with some 23 new contributors. Major developments in humanistic theory, research, health care, eldercare, multicultural psychology, neuroscience, developmental psychology, awe-based spirituality, social and political psychology, and psychotherapy have been vividly and methodically detailed. At the same time, this volume addresses key controversies that are brewing both within and without humanistic psychology. Among these are the withering pressures on mainstream psychology to shift further from its humanistic roots and to cater to military-industrial interests; the pressure on humanistic and general psychotherapy to stress short-term, solution-focused interventions; and the pressure on psychology as a whole to become a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline.

    Yet for all of these challenges, humanistic psychology remains a powerful force for psychospiritual wholeness, for the larger view, and for the depth of inquiry that few singular disciplines attain. As the Introduction below makes plain, humanistic psychology remains a foundation on which other specialties can rest and on which the entire field of psychology can be both bolstered and integrated. These are not incontrovertible words of course, but they are words that form the backbone of this volume. They are also words that inspire humanistic psychologists, more than ever before perhaps, to work toward a comprehensively humanizing psychology, a psychology that resists the fragmentary and embraces the whole.


    KirkJ.Schneider, J.FraserPierson, and JamesF. T.Bugental

    Humanism is a ferment that has “come to stay.” It is not a single hypothesis or theorem, and it dwells on no new facts. It is rather a slow shifting in the philosophic perspective, making things appear as from a new centre of interest or point of sight.

    —William James [“The Essence of Humanism,” 1905]

    What is the next step for psychology, and who or what will lead us into the beckoning age? Will it be the wizardry of artificial intelligence with its computerized models for living? The marvels of neuroscience with its brain–behavior correlations? Evolutionary psychology with its sociobiology of natural selection? Positive psychology with its “measurements” of “the good life” (Seligman, 1998)? The dizzying analyses of postmodernism with their culturally relative truths and patchwork quilt of meanings?

    Although each of these paradigms is certain to have its place in the coming age, the reader is asked to envision an alternative scenario. What if psychology's next step were a holistic one, a rich mosaic consisting of each of the emerging trends but threaded throughout by the depth, breadth, and pathos of intimate human experience? What if artificial intelligence were complemented by poetic illumination, neuroscience were supplemented by experiential inquiry, and evolutionary psychology were matched by holistic reflection? What if positive psychology were linked with depth or philosophical investigation and postmodernism were linked with personalism or transcendentalism?

    If this amalgamated vision hints of familiarity, it should. For 55 years, humanistic psychology has grappled with this vision, and during more recent years, that struggle has intensified. The reasons for this intensification are many, but psychology's relentless yen for compartmentalizing—for fragmenting and subdividing knowledge—is surely at their core. In our haste to find mechanisms, abstractions, and formulas, are we neglecting the being to whom these modalities apply? Are we neglecting lives? Humanistic psychology poses two overarching challenges to the study of conscious and nonconscious processes: (1) what does it mean to be fully experientially human and (2) how does that understanding illuminate the fulfilled or vital life?

    Say what one will about the trials and limitations of humanistic psychology's past, it is now a seasoned and multifaceted approach. Precisely at a time when technical models for living are in the ascendant, humanistic psychology offers a poignant counterweight to those models and, thereby, a context through which they may become humanized. Humanistic psychology is a concerted brew of existential, transpersonal, and constructivist theorizing1 and encompasses a breathtaking investigative range. Still, for all its variety, it converges on the profound and poignant wholeness of the human lot. Whereas there have been extremes within humanistic psychology (e.g., individualism, libertinism, spiritual and secular elitism), this volume reflects the leading edges and maturation of what we call experiential humanism. Experiential humanism embraces all modes of awareness and subawareness—individual, social, biological, and spiritual—but particularly as they resonate with lives. For example, neither aggregates nor abstractions are excluded from the experiential humanistic framework. But the question is to whom and within what contexts these formulations apply. And to the extent that they do not apply, how can we supplement them?

    The contributors to this volume have a great deal to say about the living and breathing contexts for psychological inquiry. They have a great deal to convey about the methods and means by which to study such contexts, and they have even more to say about the applications that ensue from such study. Furthermore, we are delighted to announce that with this thoroughly updated second edition of the Handbook, we have added 13 new chapters and sections and 23 new authors to help us extend the humanistic legacy to the emerging generation of students, scholars, and practitioners. Among these chapters and authors are “Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism: History, Current Status, and Advancements” by Louis Hoffman, Heatherlyn Cleare-Hoffman, and Theopia Jackson; “Rediscovering Awe: A New Front in Humanistic Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Society” by Kirk Schneider; “Toward a Sustainable Myth of Self: An Existential Response to the Postmodern Condition” by Louis Hoffman, Sharon Stewart, Denise Warren, and Lisa Meek; “Humanistic Neuropsychology: The Implications of Neuorophenomenology for Psychology” by Brent Dean Robbins and Susan Gordon; “Humanistic Eldercare: Toward a New Conceptual Framework for Aging” by Nader Shabahangi; “Toward a Humanistic-Cultural Model of Development” by Eugene DeRobertis; “The Grounded Theory Method and Humanistic Psychology” by David Rennie and Rinat Nissam; a special section, “The Renewal of Humanism in Psychotherapy: A Roundtable Discussion,” with Kirk Schneider, Alfried Langle, Jürgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, Robert Stolorow, Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, and Steven Hayes; “Frames, Attitudes, and Skills of an Existential-Humanistic Therapist” by Bob Edelstein; “The Person of the Therapist: One Therapist's Journey to Relationship” by Barry Duncan; “Humanistic Psychology's Transformative Role in a Threatened World” by Maureen O'Hara; “An Existential-Integrative Approach to Experiential Liberation” by Kirk Schneider; “Cultivating Psychotherapeutic Artistry: Model Existential-Humanistic Training Programs” by Fraser Pierson, Orah Krug, Jeff Sharp, and Troy Piwowarski; “Humanistic Psychology, Mind-Body Medicine, and Whole-Person Healthcare” by Eleanor Criswell and Ilene Serlin; and “Humanistic Psychology and Social Action” by Donadrian Rice. Additionally, each of the remaining chapters have either been updated or retained in accordance with their current state of respective knowledge and understanding.

    Before we expand on the aforementioned, however, let us briefly trace the lineage that led to its formation. (For a more formal exposition, see the chapter “The Roots and Genealogy of Humanistic Psychology” by Moss, this volume.) Contrary to popular belief, the roots of humanistic psychology are a diverse amalgam of secular, theistic, individualistic, and communalistic strands that, as suggested earlier, converge on two overarching themes: (1) what it means to be fully experientially human and (2) how that understanding illuminates the fulfilled or vital life.

    The birth pangs of humanism are typically traced to fifth-century BCE Greece, during the period of the great philosophers and dramatists such as Socrates, Plato, and Sophocles (Garraty & Gay, 1972; Grondin, 1995). Classical humanism, as it has come to be known, was a turning away from the god-centered preoccupation of antiquity to that which concerned the distinctly “human.” Following Socrates's famous dictum “Know thyself,” humanistic thinkers elucidated themes such as personal responsibility, choice, love, and fear. According to such humanists, no longer could questions of motivation, morality, or truth be reducible to supernatural dogmas; instead, they required the complex applications of reason and reflection.

    The second great flourishing of humanism occurred during the period of the Renaissance, approximately 400 to 600 years ago, when intellectuals such as Pico della Mirandola, Da Vinci, and Erasmus rebelled against the strictures of the medieval Church and resurrected Greek humanism. The focus of these intellectuals was on human achievements or the studia humanitatis as opposed to the studia divinitatis (Grondin, 1995, p. 112). This curriculum emphasized “human artistry and culture in the original works of the Greek and Latin authors” (p. 112).

    The third wave of humanism emerged during the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries. Two major branches reflecting earlier humanistic rifts characterized this wave. Rationalists represented the first branch, and romanticists represented the second branch. Rationalist-humanists, exemplified by thinkers such as Bacon, Newton, and Locke, held that cognition is what distinguishes the human being. The path to the fulfilled life for rationalists was prediction, control, and efficiency (Jones, 1969). On the other hand, romanticist-humanists, exemplified by luminaries such as Blake, Goethe, and Kierkegaard, believed that the heart (or emotions) is the distinguishing characteristic of humanity. To live with heart—with passion, intuition, and imagination—is to live the vital life, according to the romanticists (Schneider, 1998).

    The latest wave of humanism began at the turn of the 20th century. In psychology, such humanism emerged as a reaction to behaviorism and deterministic Freudianism. Early critics of these movements—William James (who, ironically, influenced behaviorism), Carl Jung, Otto Rank, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, and Henry Murray—protested the equation of human with animal or primate being.

    By the late 1950s, the American humanistic psychology movement drew on all of the former sources of humanism but developed its own brand as well (deCarvalho, 1991). The answer to the question “What makes us fully and optimally human?” was as varied as the American humanistic psychology movement itself. Given this caveat, however, authors as diverse as Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, Gordon Allport, Carl Rogers, Michael Polanyi, and James Bugental all coalesced with regard to one intertwining concern—the centrality of the personal. To the degree that American, and to a large extent European, humanistic psychologists turned to the personal or profoundly intimate as the fount of their investigative wisdom, they echoed the Enlightenment romanticists to define their tradition. This lineage, which in turn echoed the biblical and Gnostic lineages of “knowledge or science of the heart” (Martinez, 1998, p. 100; Moyers, 1997), has two main emphases: (1) a holistic or multilayered understanding of psychological phenomena and (2) a valuing of tacit processes (affect, intuition, kinesthesia, and imagination) to both access and express that understanding (Schneider, 1998).

    Today, humanistic psychology is a resurging though embattled purview. Some in academia, for example, maintain that it is obsolete (e.g., Sass, 1988). The question as to what is distinctively human and fulfilling is considered misguided at best or oppressive at worst, according to these critics (Sampson, 1993). The postmodern (or, more strictly speaking, poststructural) ethos, for example, militates against questions about global humanity. In poststructural circles, humanity is a social construction, and fulfillment is a relative value. The rise in multicultural consciousness raises similar questions about humanistic precepts. There are as many “humanisms” for some multicultural thinkers as there are races, ethnic identities, and languages. Who can stand above them all and identify global human qualities? For some transpersonal and religious thinkers, on the other hand, humanism is shortsighted, indulgent, and devitalized. According to these thinkers, humanism is excessively preoccupied with individuals, personal achievements, and material realities. As a result, some transpersonal and religious thinkers accuse humanists of lacking faith, vision, and morality. Finally, technological thinkers accuse humanism of being fuzzy and impractical. Standardizing or technological psychologists (e.g., Baker, McFall, & Shoham, 2008; Salzinger, 1999), for example, tend to see humanists as undisciplined dreamers who consistently overestimate the value of feelings, intuition, and imagination while downplaying the corresponding value of logic, rationality, and systematization.

    At the same time as humanistic psychology is being besieged, however, some segments of humanistic psychology are being absorbed and transformed. The so-called relational theorists, for example, are drawing on humanistic concepts such as authenticity and the interpersonal field to reform conventional psychoanalytic theory (Portnoy, 1999; Stolorow, 2011; Stolorow, Atwood, & Brandchaft, 1994). Positive psychology is conveying key humanistic concepts to the mainstream (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000).

    Yet humanism (and humanistic psychology in particular) is a great deal more complex than the conceptions of many of its detractors or even its transformers. As the contributors to this updated volume make clear, contemporary humanistic psychology has come a long way since the days of fuzzy-minded or idiosyncratic scholarship (to whatever extent those actually predominated). Now, it is a rich tapestry of diverse and reflective voices that often complement, inform, and even inspire their ostensible detractors. In this volume, for example, we see meditations on the humanistic contributions to cutting-edge research, discussions of the humanistic origins of postmodern narrative psychology, examinations of the complementarity between personal experiences and neuroscience, reflections on the place of humanistic psychology in cross-cultural studies, and considerations of the role of personalism in an era of standardized mental health. We also see leading-edge formulations of humanistic ecology, peace, child rearing, eldercare, multiculturalism, spirituality, and gender studies along with many other traditional areas of inquiry.

    The upshot of this elaboration is that contemporary humanistic psychology is an integrative psychology that addresses the most pressing issues of our time. For signs of this integrative resurgence, consider the American Psychological Association's publication of two unprecedented textbooks on humanistic therapy (Cain & Seeman, 2002) and existential therapy (Schneider & Krug, 2010); the publication of a companion video series on the topics called “Psychotherapy Over Time” (Cain, 2010; Schneider, 2009); and the publication of two major books on humanistic philosophy and social psychology emerging in the same year (Bohart, Held, Mendelowitz, & Schneider, 2012; Shaver & Mikulincer, 2012). There is also an increasing interest in the integration of humanistic principles into mainstream psychotherapeutic practice (see “The Renewal of Humanism in Psychotherapy,” this volume; Norcross & Wampold, 2011; Price, 2011; Schneider, 2008; Shumaker, 2012; Wampold, 2008; Wolfe, 2008). These integrations are occurring in spite of, and perhaps even in light of, the countervailing forces of therapeutic manualization and standardization (e.g., Benjamin, 2011; Norcross & Lambert, 2011; Price, 2011; Shedler, 2010).

    Finally, there is an increasing international interest in humanistic theory, research, and practice (see “Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism: History, Current Status, and Advancements” [Chapter 4] and the special section “The Renewal of Humanism in Psychotherapy: A Roundtable Discussion,” this volume). For example, there has been a sharp rise in existential-humanistic and transpersonal psychology in China (see Hoffman, Yang, Kakluaskas, & Chan, 2009, for an overview), Russia, and central Europe (Langley & Kriz, “The Renewal of Humanism in European Psychotherapy: Developments and Applications” [Chapter 26], this volume) and active involvement in Canada, Great Britain, the Baltics, Greece, Japan, and Latin America. The first major U.S–China existential therapy conference took place in April 2010, and the second took place in May 2012. The first World Congress of Existential Therapy is due to convene in London in 2015.

    What, then, does the most recent incarnation of humanistic psychology offer that is so distinct, compelling, and international? In our view, it is that which the earlier generation of humanistic psychologists also prized—the heart or personal dimension to which we earlier alluded. Unlike the previous generation, however, current humanistic psychology has the benefit of incorporating a wealth of contemporary insight into its personalism, for example, a recognition of its significance for politics and culture as well as for individuals (see the chapters by Hoffman, Hoffman, & Jackson, “Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism: History, Current Status, and Advancements” [Chapter 4]; O'Hara, “Humanistic Psychology's Transformative Role in a Threatened World” [Chapter 37]; and Rice, “Humanistic Psychology and Social Action” [Chapter 46], this volume) and an increased openness to its spiritual implications (see the chapters by Schneider, “Rediscovering Awe: A New Front in Humanistic Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Society” [Chapter 6]; Elkins, “Beyond Religion: Toward a Humanistic Spirituality” [Chapter 44]; Krippner, “Research Methodology in Humanistic Psychology in Light of Postmodernity” [Chapter 24]; Pilisuk & Joy, “Humanistic Psychology and Ecology” [Chapter 10]; and Walsh, “Authenticity, Conventionality, and Angst: Existential and Transpersonal Perspectives” [Chapter 45], this volume). The poignancy of the tragic also is highlighted (see the chapters by Stern, “Awe Comes Shaking Out of the Bones” [Chapter 32]; Heery, “A Humanistic Perspective on Bereavement” [Chapter 35]; Greening, “Becoming Authentic: An Existential-Humanistic Approach to Reading Literature” [Chapter13]; and Mendelowitz, “Fellini, Fred, and Ginger: Imagology and the Postmodern World” [Chapter 14], this volume) along with traditional humanistic accents on hope. In short, the new personalism embraces experiences that matter—that have “resonance validity” (see Schneider, 1999)—regardless of whether or not those experiences pertain to individuals or groups, persons or divinities.

    Yet it is precisely such experiences, and such openness, that psychology struggles with today—on all of its major fronts. Consequently, it too is embattled (see “Historical Overview,” this volume). On the other hand, consider what the personal dimension (the intimate and resonant) could bring to psychology's various components—to the statistical mind-set of methodology, the standardization mentality of psychotherapy, the group consciousness of multiculturalism, the nihilism of poststructuralism, and the esoterics of transpersonalism.

    Twenty-nine years ago, Carl Rogers issued a challenge: Can humanistic psychology, with all of its applied and philosophical richness, become a force in academia and science (Rogers, 1985)? We believe that it not only can but currently is, and we believe that this volume is a testament to that claim.

    To the extent that psychology is fractured, rivalrous, and rife with tension, it is also abundant with possibility. This volume is a window on that possibility—a window on a larger view of science. Will the reader welcome this window? Indeed, we the editors believe that the reader will yearn to peer through.

    One final note is in order. This volume continues to represent a massive collective undertaking. It remains unprecedented, to our knowledge, that the humanistic community has mobilized so comprehensively, and so devotedly, around its own distinctive vision.

    There was, however, another time when the humanistic community undertook such a concerted project, and Bugental's (1967) Challenges of Humanistic Psychology was its embodiment. We remain greatly indebted to both the participants and the spirit of that trailblazer, and we bear its stamp with pride.


    1. These represent three basic emphases of contemporary humanistic psychology. Although these emphases overlap and sometimes are used interchangeably with one another (as well as with their umbrella context, i.e., humanistic psychology), they are generally considered to be separate yet historically linked (see the chapters by Moss, “The Roots and Genealogy of Humanistic Psychology” [Chapter 1]; Taylor & Martin, “Humanistic Psychology at the Crossroads” [Chapter 2]; Arons & Richards, “Two Noble Insurgencies: Creativity and Humanistic Psychology” [Chapter 12]; Josselson & Lieblich, “Narrative Research and Humanism” [Chapter 23]; Leitner & Epting, “Constructivist Approaches to Therapy” [Chapter 34]; O'Hara, “Humanistic Psychology's Transformative Role in a Threatened World” [Chapter 37]; Walsh and Schneider, “Authenticity, Conventionality, and Angst: Existential and Transpersonal Perspectives” [Chapter 45]; and Rice, Humanistic Psychology and Social Action [Chapter 46], this volume). Existential psychology emphasizes freedom, experiential reflection, and responsibility; transpersonal psychology stresses spirituality, transcendence, and compassionate social action; and constructivist psychology accents culture, political consciousness, and personal meaning.

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    The birthing of a book of this magnitude is essentially a labor of love from inspiration and conceptualization to actualization in the very tangible form that the reader holds in his or her hands. We are warmly appreciative of the authors who enthusiastically and generously contributed their current products in theory, research, and practice so that, collaboratively, we could offer a “handbook” of humanistic psychology. We also thank our forebears in philosophy and psychology, whose contributions to the movement of humanistic psychology are of such significance that their presence resonates to our generation and is expressed—sometimes between the lines—throughout the chapters of this volume. We especially acknowledge the inspiration of Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, William James, Martin Buber, Edmund Husserl, Otto Rank, Martin Heidegger, Paul Tillich, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Gordon Allport, Charlotte Bühler, Erich Fromm, Henry Murray, Gardner Murphy, George Kelly, Abraham Maslow, Frederick Perls, Anthony Sutich, Rollo May, Carl Rogers, Virginia Satir, Ronald David Laing, Sidney Jourard, and Ernest Becker.

    We are indebted to our editors at Sage Publications, Reid Hester and Sarita Sarak, who graciously and expertly took up the task of helping us shepherd this second edition of the Handbook.

    It is with joy and deepest love that we thank our spouses and dearest friends, Jhrate Elena Raulinaitis and Jeff Hubbell, for the innumerable ways in which they have contributed to this grand adventure. Their loving presence is our greatest inspiration.

    KirkSchneider and J.FraserPierson

    About the Editors

    Kirk J. Schneider, PhD, is a leading spokesperson for contemporary existential-humanistic psychology. He is the recent past editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (2005–2012), vice president of the Existential-Humanistic Institute, and adjunct faculty at Saybrook University, Columbia University, Teachers College, and the California Institute of Integral Studies. A fellow of the American Psychological Association, he has published more than 100 articles and chapters and has authored or edited 10 books (7 of them either have been or soon will be translated into Chinese). These books include The Paradoxical Self, Horror and the Holy, The Psychology of Existence (with Rollo May); The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology (with James Bugental and Fraser Pierson); Rediscovery of Awe, Existential-Integrative Psychotherapy, Existential-Humanistic Therapy (with Orah Krug—the accompanying APA video is also available); Humanity's Dark Side: Evil, Destructive Experience, and Psychotherapy (with Art Bohart, Barbara Held, and Ed Mendelowitz); Awakening to Awe: Personal Stories of Profound Transformation; and, most recently, The Polarized Mind: Why It's Killing Us and What We Can Do About It. He is the recipient of the Rollo May Award from Division 32 of the American Psychological Association for “outstanding and independent pursuit of new frontiers in humanistic psychology”; the “Cultural Innovator” award from the Living Institute, Toronto, Canada, a psychotherapy training center that bases its diploma on his existential-integrative model of therapy; and an honorary diploma from the East European Association of Existential Therapy. He is also a founding member of the Existential-Humanistic Institute in San Francisco, which in August 2012 launched one of the first certificate programs in existential-humanistic practice to be offered in the United States. In April 2010, he delivered the opening keynote address at the First International (East–West) Existential Psychology Conference in Nanjing, China, and he is slated as keynote speaker at the first World Congress of Existential Psychotherapy in London, May 2015.

    J. Fraser Pierson, PhD, is a licensed psychologist and professor of psychology at Southern Oregon University. She coedited (with Schneider and Bugental) The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice (2001); contributed a piece, “The Awe of Natural Living,” to Awakening to Awe (edited by Schneider, 2009); interviewed James Hillman for The Archetypal Psychology and Psychotherapy Series (, 2008); regularly presents on topics pertaining to mental health counseling; and serves on the editorial board of The Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Her current interests include psychotherapist preparation; self-and-worldview transformations associated with participation in sailing and other kinds of “deep play” (see Diane Ackerman's engaging book by that title); and the dividends of transcendent consciousness catalyzed by awe, particularly when awe is sparked by wildlife observations and encounters in the natural world or by the bonds between companion animals and their humans.

    James F. T. Bugental (1915–2008) was a major spokesperson for the humanistic perspective since its coalescence into an influential movement in the field of psychology more than 50 years ago. He was an emeritus and adjunct faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center (now Saybrook University) and an emeritus and clinical faculty member at Stanford Medical School. Virtually up to the end of his life, Jim continued to supervise, teach, and write about existential-humanistic psychology and psychotherapy. His major publications include Psychotherapy Isn't What You Think (1999), Intimate Journeys: Stories From Life-Changing Psychotherapy (1990), The Art of the Psychotherapist (1987), Psychotherapy and Process: The Fundamentals of an Existential-Humanistic Approach (1978), The Search for Existential Identity: Patient-Therapist Dialogues in Humanistic Psychotherapy (1976), The Search for Authenticity: An Existential-Analytic Approach to Psychotherapy (1965), and (as editor) Challenges of Humanistic Psychology (1967). He also has published more than 80 articles in professional and technical journals as well as 25 original chapters in books edited by others. Translations of his work can be found in French, Finnish, Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese. He served on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, The Humanistic Psychologist, and the American Journal of Psychotherapy.

  • Appendix: Regionally Accredited Schools with Graduate Programs in Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology

    The following is a limited sample of regionally accredited schools that have humanistic and transpersonal graduate programs in psychology. This list is intended to be a resource for the interested reader. It is neither evaluative nor exhaustive. For specific information regarding addresses, programs, and degrees, contact the individual school.

    Western Region

    Antioch University, Marina Del Rey, CA

    Antioch University–Seattle, Seattle, WA

    California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA

    John F. Kennedy University Graduate School for Holistic Studies, Orinda, CA

    John F. Kennedy University Graduate School of Professional Psychology, Orinda, CA

    Naropa University, Boulder, CO

    National University, San Diego, CA

    Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA

    Pepperdine University, Department of Psychology, Culver City, CA

    Saybrook University, San Francisco, CA

    Seattle University, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA

    Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA

    Sophia University, Palo Alto, CA

    Southwestern College, Department of Psychology, Santa Fe, NM

    Midwestern Region

    Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, IL

    Michigan School of Professional Psychology, Detroit, MI

    Union Institute Graduate School, Cincinnati, OH

    Walden University, Minneapolis, MN

    Southern Region

    State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA

    Northeast Region

    Duquesne University, Department of Psychology, Pittsburgh, PA

    Goddard College, Plainfield, VT

    Lesley College, Cambridge, MA

    Norwich University, Montpelier, VT

    Point Park University, Pittsburgh, PA

    Salve Regina University, Newport, RI

    The Living Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    SOURCE: All school listings are originally excerpted from Directory: Graduate Programs in Humanistic-Transpersonal Psychology in North America (5th ed., 1996), published and distributed by the Department of Psychology, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Copyright © 1981 by Division 32 of the American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. Several new schools have been added to and several deleted from the list based on the editors’ updated knowledge about their curricula. To the best of the editors’ knowledge, all schools listed were regionally accredited at the initial time of publication. For an update on this listing and on other humanistic-transpersonal psychology programs, contact the Department of Psychology at the State University of West Georgia or the Society for Humanistic Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 32).

    Author Index

    About the Contributors

    Christopher M. Aanstoos is a professor of psychology and a member of the graduate faculty at the State University of West Georgia. After having previously taught at LaRoche College and Pennsylvania State University, he joined the humanistic psychology program at the State University of West Georgia in 1982. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and has served as president of its Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology). He is editor of that division's journal, The Humanistic Psychologist, and has edited two books: Studies in Humanistic Psychology and Exploring the Lived World. He has published more than 70 articles and chapters and has lectured widely. He received his PhD in phenomenological psychology from Duquesne University.

    Mike Arons (1929–2008) was a professor emeritus at the State University of West Georgia. He completed his Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in psychology at Wayne State University in 1961; completed his doctorate in philosophy at the Sorbonne, Université de Paris, in 1965; and earned a postdoctorate master's degree in psychology at Brandeis University in 1967. Under Paul Ricoeur, he wrote his doctoral dissertation on the subject of creativity and its spur to the emerging cultural revolution, and he later served as a teaching assistant to Abraham Maslow. For a combined 24 years, he chaired and was instrumental in pioneering two humanistically oriented psychology programs: one on Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the other at the State University of West Georgia. He has served as president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and as president of the Association for Humanistic Education, and he has twice served on the board of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. He is credited with more than 250 publications in areas such as humanistic-transpersonal psychology, creativity and intuition, values and ethics, and a vision for a new vocation in psychology. He was a recipient of the Division 32 Charlotte Bühler and Abraham H. Maslow Awards.

    Arthur C. Bohart is a professor emeritus (retired) at California State University, Dominguez Hills. He was also affiliated with Saybrook University. He is the coauthor or coeditor of several books, including How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing, Empathy Reconsidered, Humanity's Dark Side, and Constructive and Destructive Behavior, all published by the American Psychological Association. He is the coauthor of the chapter on the client in the latest (sixth) edition of Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change. His other work has focused on empathy, the person-centered approach, and evidence-based practice in psychotherapy.

    G. Kenneth Bradford is an adjunct professor at both John F. Kennedy University and the California Institute of Integral Studies. He practices psychotherapy and consultation in the San Francisco Bay Area, working with individuals and couples. His teaching and therapy practice are guided by existential principles and contemplative Buddhist sensibilities. He is a licensed psychologist and obtained his PhD in psychology (clinical concentration) from the Saybrook Institute.

    Scott D. Churchill is Chair of Psychology at the University of Dallas, where his professional focus is on the development of phenomenological and hermeneutic methodologies. He is a licensed psychologist and an active member of Divisions 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) and 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. His recent publications include articles in the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology and the Encyclopedia of Psychology as well as a chapter in the edited Phenomenological Inquiry: Existential and Transpersonal Dimensions. He is the editor-in-chief of Methods: A Journal for Human Science, serves on several editorial boards, and is a television film critic in his spare time. He earned his doctorate in clinical phenomenological psychology at Duquesne University.

    Heatherlyn Cleare-Hoffman, PsyD, is a faculty member and Associate Director of Clinical Training at Argosy University's San Francisco Bay Area Campus (SFBA). Originally from the Bahamas, she was a faculty member at the University of the Rockies in Colorado before relocating to California and Argosy SFBA. As a licensed psychologist in Colorado, she provided psychological services including individual and couples therapy, psychological assessments, and supervision. Her publications and conference presentations have focused on diversity issues in psychotherapy, international psychology, existential and humanistic psychology, marriage and family therapy, and the meaning of the Bahamian festival of Junkanoo. She has presented internationally in the United States, the Caribbean, and China.

    Lillian Comas-Diaz is cofounder of the Transcultural Mental Health Institute, Washington, D.C., an editorial board member of the American Psychological Association's flagship journal the American Psychologist, and a leading voice advocating for multicultural consciousness and psychotherapy in professional psychology.

    Eleanor Criswell is a professor of psychology and former chair of the psychology department at Sonoma State University. She is the founding director of the Humanistic Psychology Institute (now Saybrook University). She is editor of Somatics Magazine and director of the Novato Institute for Somatic Research and Training. She is a past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology and Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    Eugene M. DeRobertis has been teaching psychology at the college level since 1996. Prior to committing himself to teaching full-time, Dr. DeRobertis worked as a developmentally oriented psychotherapist and addictions counselor. He has published multiple peer-reviewed works on existential-phenomenological psychology, the psychosocial impact of contemporary information technology, psychological maltreatment, and child developmental theory. He is the author of Humanizing Child Developmental Theory: A Holistic Approach (2008), The Whole Child: Selected Papers on Existential-Humanistic Child Psychology (2012), Existential-Phenomenological Psychology:A Brief Introduction (2012), and Profiles of Personality: An Approach-Based Companion (2013). He holds a BA in philosophy from St. Peter's College and a PhD in psychology from Duquesne University.

    Barry L. Duncan, PsyD, director of the Heart and Soul of Change Project (, is a therapist, trainer, and researcher with more than 17,000 hours of clinical experience. He has more than 100 publications, including 16 books addressing client feedback, consumer rights, the power of relationship, and a risk–benefit analysis of psychotropic medications. Combining all those topics, his latest book, On Becoming a Better Therapist (second edition) describes the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) as a way to both improve client outcomes and accelerate therapist development. Implemented across the United States and in 20 countries, PCOMS is included in SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. PCOMS focuses the practitioner and the consumer on the present evidence of effectiveness and relationship, whether this therapeutic approach provided by this provider is benefiting this client—or evidence-based practice one client at a time. Barry can be reached at

    Bob Edelstein, LMFT, MFT, is an existential-humanistic psychotherapist with more than 40 years of experience. In addition, he provides consultation, supervision, workshops, and training for clinicians and students. He is a blogger for Psychology Today and has published a number of articles on the existential-humanistic perspective. He is the founder of Existential-Humanistic Northwest, a professional organization based in Portland, Oregon. He is also a former board member of the Existential-Humanistic Institute and a former board member of the Association for Humanistic Psychology.

    David N. Elkins is a licensed psychologist and Professor of Psychology in the Graduate School of Education and Psychology at Pepperdine University. He is a past president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. He is the author of Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion (1998).

    Robert Elliott has taught at the University of Toledo since 1978, where he is a professor of psychology and director of the doctoral program in clinical psychology. He is the director of the Center for the Study of Experiential Psychotherapy and president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research and served as coeditor of the journal Psychotherapy Research from 1994 to 1998. He is coauthor of Facilitating Emotional Change (with Leslie Greenberg and Laura Rice) and Research Methods for Clinical and Counseling Psychology (with Chris Barker and Nancy Pistrang). He received his PhD in clinical psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1978.

    Lawrence R. Epp, EdD, is Director for School Mental Health Services for Family Services, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland. He is the president of the Licensed Clinical Professional Counselors of Maryland, the Maryland Chapter of the American Mental Health Counselors Association. He was the last graduate assistant of Clemmont Vontress, PhD, in 1996, at the George Washington University and is a lifelong friend of Dr. Vontress.

    Franz R. Epting is Professor of Counseling Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Florida and holds an adjunct appointment within the University Counseling Center. He studied with George Kelly while a graduate student at the Ohio State University. He has been a visiting professor at the University of London, University of Utrecht, and Ohio State University. He was cochair of the Fifth International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology and recently was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by the North American Personal Construct Theory Network. Active in both constructivist and humanistic psychology, he has published four books and more than 80 articles on counseling and personality psychology, covering issues in death orientation, optimal functioning, constructivist assessment and psychotherapy, human science methodology, and (more recently) constructivist approaches to sexual orientation and gender. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and is most active in Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology), serving as chair of that division's Fellows Committee.

    Constance T. Fischer is a professor of psychology and director of the Psychology Clinic at Duquesne University. She is a diplomate in clinical psychology and engages in a part-time private practice. She is on the editorial boards of The Humanistic Psychologist, the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Methods: A Journal for Human Science, and Clinical Case Studies. She is currently president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. Her current projects include editing a volume on qualitative research methods for psychology, preparing a second edition of Individualizing Psychological Assessment, and researching the experience of becoming angry through a human science psychology perspective.

    Maurice Friedman (1921–2012) was a foremost expositor of the work of Martin Buber, Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies, Philosophy, and Comparative Literature at San Diego State University and codirector of the Institute of Dialogical Psychotherapy. Among his 23 published books are Martin Buber's Life and Work (3 volumes), The Healing Dialogue in Psychotherapy, Encounter on the Narrow Ridge: A Life of Martin Buber, and Dialogue and the Human Image: Beyond Humanistic Psychology.

    Amedeo Giorgi is a professor emeritus of psychology at Saybrook University. He also is a former acting dean of that school. He is the author of Psychology as a Human Science and was the founder and first editor (for 25 years) of the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. He has published more than 100 articles on various aspects of the relationship between the phenomenological approach and issues in systematic psychology. Based on the works of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, he is developing a scientific framework for a psychology of human persons as well as a method for researching psychological experiences. He received his PhD in experimental psychology from Fordham University in 1958.

    Susan Gordon, PhD, is Core Adjunct Professor of Psychology at National University, La Jolla, California, and Research Director of the Southbury Clinic for Traditional Medicines, Southbury, Connecticut. She has a doctorate in the history and philosophy of psychology (mind–body medicine) from Saybrook University, has completed coursework in naturopathic medicine at Bastyr University, and is affiliated with Harvard Library. Her research and publications integrate holistic health, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive endocrinology, and existential phenomenology. She serves on the executive board of the Society for Humanistic Psychology, Division 32 of the American Psychological Association and the editorial review boards of The Humanistic Psychologist and PsycCRITIQUES. She is editor of and contributing author to Neurophenomenology and Its Applications to Psychology (2013) and author of “Psycho-Neuro-Intracrinology: The Mind–body Continuum” in The Healing Power of Nature: The Foundations of Naturopathic Medicine and the Ecology of Healing: Primary Care for the Twenty First Century (in press).

    Thomas Greening has been practicing existential-humanistic psychotherapy in the same office for more than four decades. He is on the faculty of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and is editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. He sometimes reads and writes poems as part of his attempts to become more authentic.

    Steven C. Hayes is the founder of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, a professor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and a pioneer in the integration of humanistic and cognitive-behavioral principles of practice.

    Myrtle Heery, PhD, is the director of the International Institute for Humanistic Studies. She trains interns and licensed psychologists, marriage family therapists, and clinical social workers in mindful applications of existential-humanistic and transpersonal psychotherapy for individual and group work in a 2-year training program, Unearthing the Moment (, a provider of continuing education units for the American Psychological Association. She is the founder of Tonglen Press, publishing books with the inspiring theme of giving and receiving to enhance our approach to helping others. She is an associate core faculty at Sofia University, Palo Alto, California, and a lecturer in the psychology department of Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California. She has a private practice in Petaluma, California, leads consultation groups in Palo Alto, and conducts individual consultations with psychotherapists at a distance. She has been a volunteer for the Hospice of Petaluma, California, for 20 years and trains volunteers in leading bereavement groups. She is coeditor of Awakening to Aging and editor of the forthcoming book Unearthing the Moment: Mindful Applications of Existential-Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychotherapy.

    Louis Hoffman, PhD, is an executive faculty member and director of the Existential-Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology specialization at Saybrook University. He is the current president of the Society for Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of the American Psychological Association) and is the coeditor/contributor to five books, including Existential Psychology East West and Brilliant Sanity: Buddhist Approaches to Psychotherapy. Additionally, he is a licensed psychologist and cofounder of the Zhi Mian International Institute of Existential-Humanistic Psychology, which is committed to engaging in dialogues to advance the practice of existential psychology internationally and provide training in existential therapy. His scholarship has focused on existential and humanistic psychotherapy, cultural diversity, spiritual and religious issues in therapy, the use of poetry in therapy and healing, and the theoretical and historical foundations of psychology.

    Theopia Jackson, PhD, is a faculty member at Saybrook University in San Francisco and a clinical psychologist at Children's Hospital & Research Center, Oakland, California. She is the chair of the General Assembly for the Association of Black Psychologists and cochair of the Diversity Task Force for the Society of Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of the American Psychological Association). She provides cultural competency training and has participated in several national and local initiatives intended to establish integrative health care that is culturally attuned and linguistically responsive. She is proud to have been mentored by Art Bohart, Cheryl Grills, and Wade Nobles. She is committed to serving children and adolescents, and their families, in diverse settings. Originally trained in psychodynamic psychology, her work integrates family systems theory, humanistic perspectives, multiculturalism (African-centered theory), relational theory/feminist thinking, and narrative approaches (social justice). She is a wife, a mother of three, and a life learner who believes that professional knowledge both shapes and is shaped by community wisdom.

    Ruthellen Josselson is on the faculty of the Fielding Institute and is Professor of Psychology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She is a recipient of the Henry A. Murray Award from the American Psychological Association and of a Fulbright Fellowship. She also is a practicing psychotherapist. She is the author of Revising Herself: The Story of Women's Identity From College to Midlife and The Space Between Us: Exploring the Dimensions of Human Relationships, and she is coeditor of the annual The Narrative Study of Lives. Most recently, she coauthored Best Friends: The Pleasures and Perils of Girls’ and Women's Friendships. She received her PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Michigan.

    Melanie Joy is a doctoral student in psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, with a specialization in ecological psychology. She has been an activist for animal rights and environmental ethics for more than a decade. She also holds a master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and conducts classes and workshops on vegetarianism in Boston.

    Stanley Krippner is a professor of psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He has served as president of the Association for the Study of Dreams, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the Parapsychological Association, and two divisions of the American Psychological Association. He is the coauthor of several books, including Personal Mythology, The Mythic Path, Spiritual Dimensions of Healing, and Dream Telepathy. He is the editor of Dreamtime and Dreamwork and of eight volumes of Advances in Parapsychological Research, and he is a coeditor of Broken Images, Broken Selves: Dissociative Narratives in Clinical Practice and Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence.

    Jürgen Kriz is a leading voice and advocate for humanistic psychotherapy in Germany. He is a professor at the University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

    Orah T. Krug, PhD, is a licensed psychotherapist with private practices in Oakland and in Sausalito, California. She is a faculty member of Saybrook University and editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. She is a founding member and clinical director of the Existential-Humanistic Institute of San Francisco. Under her direction, the Existential-Humanistic Institute offers several certificate programs in existential-humanistic therapy, one in partnership with Saybrook University. (Information about the certificate programs is available at Most recently, she coauthored a textbook with Kirk Schneider titled Existential-Humanistic Therapy, part of a monograph series for the American Psychological Association. She has produced two videos, titled Conversations With Jim and “Joe”: A Demonstration of the Consultation Process (with James Bugental). Her current research focuses on the relationship between existential meaning-making processes and therapeutic change. She may be reached at

    Alfried A. Längle is a leading exponent of logotherapy and existential analysis. He is the president of the International Society for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis in Vienna, Austria, and a faculty at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow, Russia.

    Larry M. Leitner is a professor of psychology at Miami University (Ohio). He has published more than 50 books, chapters, and articles dealing with various topics relevant to humanistic psychology. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Constructivist Psychology and The Psychotherapy Patient. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and president-elect of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology).

    Amia Lieblich is a professor of psychology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She has been a visiting professor at several universities in the United States including the University of California, Los Angeles; the University of California, Berkeley; and the University of Michigan. Her major interests are in the areas of cultural psychology (specifically the impact of the social-political reality in Israel on the lives of men and women in that country), the psychology of gender, and life stories. During recent years, she has done most of her research using narrative approaches. Among her early English publications are Tin Soldiers on Jerusalem Beach and Kibbutz Makom. More recent publications include Seasons of Captivity, Conversations With Dvora, and Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis, and Interpretation. Together with Ruthellen Josselson, she is the editor of six volumes of The Narrative Study of Lives, published by Sage. She received her PhD in 1969 from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

    Alvin R. Mahrer is a professor emeritus in the School of Psychology at the University of Ottawa. He is the author of 12 books and more than 200 publications. He is a former president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and is a recipient of the Distinguished Psychologist Award of the American Psychological Association's Division 29 (Psychotherapy). He is probably best known for his experiential theory of psychology, his experiential psychotherapy and self-transformation, his discovery-oriented research paradigm, and his application of the philosophy of science to the field of psychotherapy.

    Frederick Martin is a doctoral student at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and works with acute psychiatric patients as an intake specialist in a private hospital in Freemont, California. He has a master's degree in public administration. He also is a full-time clinician in the psychiatric emergency room for Alameda County and is a licensed psychiatric technician and hospital administrator. His current interests embrace humanistic psychology's history, meaning, and contemporary significance.

    Lisa Meek, PsyD, is an affiliate core faculty member at the University of the Rockies. She is an adjunct supervisor at Rockies Counseling Center and has a private clinical psychology practice in Colorado Springs, Colorado. As a licensed psychologist, her clinical expertise includes child, adolescent, adult, group, and family psychotherapy utilizing existential, humanistic, and dialectical behavioral therapies. As a professor, her interests include educational and personality assessment, and diversity and learning disabilities. She has provided coaching, training, program development, and outcome analysis for administrators and teachers on the topics of effective teaching and behavior management.

    Edward Mendelowitz is on the board of editors for The Journal of Humanistic Psychology and The Humanistic Psychologist and a contributor to some of the major compendiums of existential-humanistic psychotherapy. He has presented numerous papers on psychology, psychotherapy, and their respective interrelations with the humanities in the United States, Europe, and East Asia. He is on the faculty of Saybrook University and a lecturer at Tufts Medical Center. He writes a quarterly online column, Humanitas, for the Society of Humanistic Psychology. His writing gets to the heart of the humanistic-existential-aesthetical basis of our field in its evocation of imagination, transience, possibility, and awe. He completed his doctoral studies at the California School of Professional Psychology, where he worked closely with Rollo May.

    Alfonso Montuori is a professor at the California Institute of Integral Studies, where he founded the “Transformative Leadership” MA program and designed the “Transformative Studies” PhD program. He has been Distinguished Professor in the School of Fine Arts at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and in 1985–1986, he taught at the Central South University in Hunan, China. An active musician, producer, and voting member of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Alfonso enjoyed a former career as a professional musician in London, England. He is the author of several books and numerous articles on creativity and innovation, the future, complexity theory, and leadership, and he is on the editorial board of numerous academic journals, including World Futures. Alfonso is also a consultant in the areas of creativity, innovation, and leadership development, and his clients have included NetApp, Training Vision (Singapore), Omnitel-Olivetti (Italy), and Procter & Gamble.

    Loren Mosher (1933–2004) was the director of Soteria Associates, a San Diego–based human service systems consulting firm, and Clinical Professor of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at the University of California at San Diego. He served as chief of the Center for Studies of Schizophrenia at the National Institute of Mental Health from 1968 to 1980. He designed and directed the Soteria Project (1970–1983), from which data still are being analyzed. His 1994 book (with Lorenzo Burti), Community Mental Health, provides practical guidelines for the development of user-centered, recovery-oriented community mental health systems. He received his MD and psychiatric training at Harvard University.

    Donald Moss is the director of Saybrook University's Integrative Health Studies Program, a faculty member of the Mind–body Studies Program at Saybrook University, and a partner at the Psychological Services Center in Michigan. He is a past president of Division 30 (Hypnosis) of the American Psychological Association, a past president of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, the editor of the Biofeedback Newsmagazine, a consulting editor for the Journal of Neurotherapy, and a past consulting editor of the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. His third book, Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology, was published in 1998, and he is the coeditor of a subsequent book, The Handbook of Mind–body Medicine for Primary Care (Sage, 2003). His latest book is Pathways to Illness, Pathways to Health (2013).

    Clark Moustakas (1923–2012) was a founding father of humanistic psychology, the former president of the Center for Humanistic Studies in Detroit, Michigan, and a senior consultant and core faculty member in Psychology at the Union Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is the author of several books, including Existential Psychotherapy and the Interpretation of Dreams; Phenomenological Research Methods; Heuristic Research; Psychotherapy With Children; Loneliness and Love; Being-In, Being-For, Being-With; and Loneliness.

    Rinat Nissim, PhD, CPsych (Supervised Practice), is a psychologist at the Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care Program of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, Ontario, and an assistant professor in the University of Toronto, Department of Psychiatry. In her research, she employs a mixed-methods approach to understanding the experience of individuals with advanced cancer.

    Maureen O'Hara is a professor of psychology at National University, La Jolla, California. She is president emerita at Saybrook University. Maureen worked closely with Carl Rogers, John K. Wood, and the PCA (person-centered approach) team facilitating large-group events and training counselors in many countries. Maureen's current work sits at the boundary of social and depth psychological inquiry and explores the impact of global cultural shifts on psychological development and emotional well-being. Her books include Handbook of Person-Centered Psychotherapy and Counseling (second edition, 2013, with M. Cooper, P. Schmid, and A. C. Bohart); Dancing at the Edge: Competence, Culture and Organization in the 21st Century (2012, with G. Leicester); 10 Things to Do in a Conceptual Emergency (2012, with G. Leicester); and Em Busca da Vida (1983, with C. R. Rogers, J. K. Wood, and A. Fonseca). She is a past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology and the Society for Humanistic Psychology.

    Marc Pilisuk is a clinical and social psychologist. He teaches at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and is a professor emeritus of community psychology in the Department of Human and Community Development at the University of California, Davis. He was a founder of the first teach-in; is a past president of the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence; and is a steering committee member of Psychologists for Social Responsibility. He is the author of six books and more than 120 articles and reviews on topics such as social support networks and health, caregiving, community mental health, conflict resolution, military-industrial power, social action, globalization, torture, poverty, and perceptions of a contaminated world. His most recent book (with Susan Parks), The Healing Web: Social Networks and Human Survival, deals with the nature of human interdependence. He shares his nonwork time as a caregiver and an activist.

    Troy Piwowarski is a doctoral student at the Michigan School of Professional Psychology, where he is currently completing a dissertation that endeavors to understand how phenomenologically oriented therapists contextualize their clients. Troy is an active board member of the Existential-Humanistic Institute, serving as liaison to students of the EHI's certificate program in existential-humanistic psychotherapy. He is also enrolled in the EHI's teacher assistant program, with the goal of becoming a faculty member in the future. One of his primary interests is learning how to teach existential-phenomenological and psychodynamic inquiry in a way that is both theoretically sound and deeply embodied.

    Donald E. Polkinghorne is a professor emeritus at the University of Southern California in the Division of Counseling Psychology and held the Fahmy and Donna Attallah Chair in Humanistic Psychology. His scholarly specialty is the philosophy of social science. He taught courses in the theories of psychotherapy, the philosophy of social science, systems of inquiry, and counseling theory. He also supervised the advanced counseling students in their practicum training. His current research projects are in the areas of hermeneutics and qualitative research, and narrative and self-identity. Recent publications include a book titled Practice and the Human Sciences: The Case for Judgment Based Practices of Care (in press), a chapter titled “Generalization in Human Science” in Validation of Knowledge Claims in Human Science (2003), and a chapter titled “Brentano's Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint” in The Anatomy of Impact: What Makes the Great Works of Psychology Great (2003).

    Ronald Purser is Associate Professor of Management in the College of Business at San Francisco State University. He also is an adjunct faculty member at Benedictine University and Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He was formerly the graduate program director of the Center for Organization Development at Loyola University of Chicago. He currently is chairperson for the Organization Development and Change division of the National Academy of Management. He is known for his research on workplace participation, social creativity, knowledge work, and environmental management. He is a coauthor or coeditor of three books: The Self-Managing Organization: How Leading Companies Are Transferring the Work of Teams for Real Impact (with Steve Cabana, 1998), The Search Conference: A Powerful Method for Planning Organizational Change and Community Action (with Merrelyn Emery, 1996), and Social Creativity (with Alfonso Montuori, two volumes, 1999). He earned his doctoral degree in organizational behavior from the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University in 1990.

    David L. Rennie (1940–2013) was Professor Emeritus and Senior Scholar at the Department of Psychology, York University, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He began his career as a faculty member at York in 1970. A prolific scholar and award-winning teacher, he was instrumental in establishing qualitative psychotherapy research methods to better understand the client's experience of psychotherapy. In recognition of his influence on the profession, he was made a fellow of both the Canadian and the American Psychological Associations (APA), and he was elected president of the Humanistic Psychology Division of the APA for 2005–2006. He graduated 23 PhD students, published three books and more than 100 refereed papers, and was invited to give at least 78 addresses around the world. His seminal papers have been cited in hundreds of research articles. His work resulted in the York Department of Psychology receiving the APA Society for Humanistic Psychology Charlotte and Karl Bühler Award in 2009. He remained very active subsequent to retirement, nearly completing a major book summarizing his research. He received a BSc (1959) and MA (1965) from the University of Alberta and a PhD (1971) from the University of Missouri.

    Donadrian L. Rice is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of West Georgia. His research and publications are in the areas of humanistic and transpersonal psychology, dreams, hypnosis, psychotherapy, mind–body, and martial arts. He is a licensed psychotherapist and holds advanced ranks in aikido, taekwondo, and shotokan karate. He is a member of the American Psychological Association's Divisions 30, 32 and 52. He is coeditor with Peter Columbus of Psychology of the Martial Arts and Alan Watts—Here and Now: Contributions to Psychology, Philosophy and Religion. As a musician, he plays the keyboard in a bossa nova and a blues and jazz band.

    Ruth Richards is a professor of psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. She also is chair of Concentration in Consciousness and Spirituality. She also is an associate clinical professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco; a research affiliate at McLean Hospital; and a lecturer in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. She coedited the book Eminent Creativity, Everyday Creativity, and Health (1997) and was an executive adviser and contributor to the Encyclopedia of Creativity (1999). She is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and the Creativity Research Journal. She draws, writes, and occasionally sings. However, she has learned the most about creativity from her 10-year-old daughter, Lauren.

    Brent Dean Robbins, PhD, is Director of the Psychology Programs and Associate Professor of Psychology at Point Park University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He has a doctorate in clinical psychology from Duquesne University and is president of the Society for Humanistic Psychology, Division 32 of the American Psychological Association. He is editor in chief of the interdisciplinary journal Janus Head and coeditor of the book Drugging Our Children: How Profiteers Are Pushing Antipsychotics on Our Youngest, and What We Can Do to Stop It (2012).

    John Rowan joined the Association for Humanistic Psychology in Britain in 1970. His major contribution is the book Ordinary Ecstasy: The Dialectics of Humanistic Psychology (first edition, 1976; third edition, 2001). In recent years, he has also become involved with the transpersonal, and his book The Transpersonal: Spirituality in Psychotherapy and Counselling (second edition, 2005) has become a classic. More recently still, he has become identified with dialogical self theory, which neatly updates and solidifies his earlier work on subpersonalities, resulting in his book Personification: Using the Dialogical Self in Psychotherapy and Counselling (2010). Currently, he is trying to convince humanistic psychologists that they are dialectical thinkers and have to take that more seriously.

    Ilene A. Serlin, PhD, BC-DMT, is a psychologist and registered dance/movement therapist in San Francisco and Marin County, California. She is a past president of San Francisco Psychological Association and of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association. She has taught at Saybrook University, Lesley University, University of California at Los Angeles, the New York Gestalt Institute, and the C. G. Jung Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. She is the editor of Whole Person Healthcare (2007, three volumes) and has written more than 100 chapters and articles on body, art, and psychotherapy. She is on the editorial boards of PsycCritiques; American Dance Therapy Journal; Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Arts & Health: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice; Journal of Applied Arts and Health; and The Humanistic Psychologist. She has published numerous articles and chapters in existential-humanistic psychology, particularly in the areas of the psychology of women and psychology and the arts.

    Nader Shabahangi is the CEO and cofounder of AgeSong. As CEO, Nader ensures that the company's vision drives its decisions and plans for eldercare services. In 1992, he also founded the Pacific Institute, a nonprofit organization that defines its mission as one of helping elders live meaningful lives through an existential-humanistic approach to care. He is a frequent guest lecturer, including presenting at international conferences focusing on aging, counseling, and dementia. In 2003, he authored Faces of Aging, a book challenging stereotypical views of the aging process and growing old. In 2008, he coauthored Deeper Into the Soul, a book aimed at de-stigmatizing and broadening our understanding of dementia. In 2009, he coauthored Conversations With Ed, a book challenging readers to look at dementia in different ways. In 2011, he wrote Elders Today, a photo essay describing the opportunities awaiting us in the second half of our lives. In the same year, he also edited Gems of Wisdom, a book of poems written largely by elders living in assisted living communities in California. Last year, he edited Encounters of a Real Kind, a compilation of stories highlighting his innovative Gero-Wellness program, where young psychotherapy interns work hand in hand with often very frail and forgetful elders in an elder community. He received his doctorate from Stanford University and is a licensed psychotherapist.

    Jeffrey G. Sharp is a clinical psychologist in private practice in Oakland, California. His practice, which includes work with individuals, couples, families, and groups, is informed by existential-humanistic perspectives and attachment theory. He has taught at numerous graduate schools and provided clinical supervision at several clinics throughout the Bay Area. In recent years, he has provided Mental Health Services in Nicaragua as a volunteer with the Yale Alumni Service Corps. His teaching, writing, and research have focused on the training of psychotherapists, the importance of mentoring, and conducting psychotherapy with men. He particularly enjoys conducting therapy and consultation groups for therapists.

    Ernesto Spinelli, PhD, is a fellow of the British Psychological Society and in 2000 was awarded the British Psychological Society Division of Counselling Psychology Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Advancement of the Profession. He is also a U.K. registered existential psychotherapist as well as a fellow and senior accredited member of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. In 1999, he was awarded a personal chair as Professor of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Counselling Psychology. Currently, he is the director of ES Associates, an organization dedicated to the advancement of existential psychotherapy through specialist seminars and training programs. He is the author of numerous papers and texts, including The Interpreted World: An Introduction to Phenomenological Psychology (Sage, 2005). The second edition of Practising Existential Psychotherapy: The Relational World (Sage, 2007), which has been widely acclaimed as a major contribution to the advancement of existential theory and practice, is being prepared for publication in 2014.

    E. Mark Stern, a diplomate in clinical psychology, is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He is a clinical psychologist interested in the intersection of psychological inquiry and practice and religious experience. His edited collections, books, and essays have emphasized the experiential as a means of personal and scientific investigation. He is a past editor of The Psychotherapy Patient and editor emeritus of Voices: The Art and Science of Psychotherapy. He was the first recipient of the Carl Rogers Award given by Division 32 of the American Psychological Association, and he is a professor emeritus at Iona College in New York.

    Sharon Stewart has worked primarily with veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Her permanent home is in Colorado Springs, Colorado. She earned a master's degree in psychology from the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and a PsyD from The Colorado School of Professional Psychology.

    Robert D. Stolorow is a founding faculty member at the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, Los Angeles, and at the Institute for the Psychoanalytic Study of Subjectivity, New York City. He is the author of World, Affectivity, Trauma: Heidegger and Post-Cartesian Psychoanalysis (2011) and Trauma and Human Existence: Autobiographical, Psychoanalytic, and Philosophical Reflections (2007) and coauthor of eight other books. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Harvard University in 1970 and his PhD in philosophy from the University of California at Riverside in 2007.

    Thomas Szasz is Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University. He is the author of 25 books, including the classic The Myth of Mental Illness (1961) and, most recently, Fatal Freedom: The Ethics and Politics of Suicide (1999). A forthcoming book is Pharmacracy: Medicine and Politics in America. He is widely recognized as the world's foremost critic of psychiatric coercions and excuses. He has received many awards for his defense of individual liberty and responsibility threatened by, in his view, the modern form of totalitarianism masquerading as therapy. A frequent and popular lecturer, he has addressed professional and lay groups and has appeared on radio and television in all of the Americas (North, Central, and South) as well as in Australia, Europe, Japan, and South Africa. His books have been translated into every major language.

    Eugene I. Taylor (1947–2013) was the author of several scholarly studies on William James. His most recent work was Shadow Culture: Psychology and Spirituality in America (1999), a historical study of the American visionary tradition. His most recent academic appointment was at Harvard Medical School as lecturer of psychiatry and as a senior psychologist in the Psychiatry Service at Massachusetts General Hospital. He also was a core faculty member at Saybrook University, where he taught the history of humanistic and transpersonal psychology. He held an MA in general/experimental psychology and Asian studies and a PhD in the history and philosophy of psychology.

    Clemmont E. Vontress, a recipient of awards and recognition in the United States and abroad, is noted for his scholarship in African traditional healing, cross-cultural counseling, ethnopsychiatry in France, and existential therapy. He has devoted much of his research and writings to existential cross-cultural therapy. After undergraduate school, he spent 2 years in Europe; there he met Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir in a small café in Paris, where they shared their views with a small group of university students. That encounter triggered a lifelong interest in philosophy, especially ideas related to existentialism. Although he pursued counseling as a career, the emerging post-World War II conception of human beings continued to fascinate him. After obtaining a PhD in counseling with minors in psychology and sociology from Indiana University in 1965, he became Professor of Counseling at Howard University (19651969) and held the same position at George Washington University (1969–1997), where he was Professor Emeritus of Counseling. He is a graduate of Kentucky State University (BA, 1952, in French and English).

    Roger Walsh, MD, PhD, DHL, is a professor of psychiatry, philosophy, and anthropology and a professor in the religious studies program at the University of California at Irvine. He is a long-term student, teacher, and researcher of contemplative practices. His relevant publications include Paths Beyond Ego, The World of Shamanism, and Essential Spirituality: The Seven Central Practices, as well as the American Psychological Association psychotherapy video Positive and Transpersonal Approaches to Therapy. He recently edited The World's Great Wisdom: Humanity's Heritage of Timeless Teachings. For more information, see

    Bruce E. Wampold is a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin and one of the foremost researchers of psychotherapy process and outcome. He is renowned for his book The Great Psychotherapy Debate and many other books and writings highlighting the contextual factors in psychotherapy effectiveness.

    Denise M. Warren, PsyD, is a licensed staff psychologist for the Advanced Cognitive Behavioral Unit at the Colorado State Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado. In this unique setting, she is dedicated to the holistic recovery of patients who have been adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity in the state of Colorado. Furthermore, she is actively involved in the treatment of trauma and is part of a significant movement to put into practice the use of mindfulness as a standard for individual and group psychotherapy for all patients. Before entering the field of forensics, she spent several years treating combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Last, her scholarship has focused on treatment of trauma, brain injury and its neurobiological effects on relationships, and existential-humanistic issues related to therapy and healing. She resides in Colorado Springs with her husband and granddaughter. She earned her doctoral degree from the University of the Rockies in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

    Jeanne C. Watson is Professor and Associate Dean, Programs at OISE, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A major exponent of humanistic-experiential psychotherapy, she has contributed to the development of emotion-focused therapy, the process-experiential approach. She teaches and conducts research on the process and outcome of emotion-focused psychotherapy. She has coauthored and coedited a total of seven books, has written more than 60 articles and chapters, and has delivered more than 100 presentations, including workshops and invited addresses, on the theory and practice of emotion-focused therapy, with an emphasis on empathy, the working alliance, emotional expression, and the treatment of depression. She received the Outstanding Early Career Award from the International Society for Psychotherapy Research in 2002 and is currently the general vice president of the society. She has a part-time practice in Toronto.

    Frederick J. Wertz is a professor of psychology at Fordham University. His scholarship and research span philosophy, methodologies, theories, and the cultural contexts of psychology. He coedited Advances in Qualitative Research in Psychology: Themes and Variations, edited The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the Person in Psychology, and coauthored Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis: Phenomenological Psychology, Grounded Theory, Discourse Analysis, Narrative Research, and Intuitive Inquiry. He was also the editor of the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology and the Bulletin of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology. He is a past president of the Society for Humanistic Psychology and the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology. He is the current president of the Interdisciplinary Coalition of North American Phenomenologists. In 2014, he will receive the prestigious Rollo May Award for pioneering work in humanistic psychology from Division 32 of the American Psychological Association. He earned his PhD at Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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