Education has continued to grow in stature and significance as an academic discipline. In addition to world renowned research studies the growth of education has been seen in the methodology and methods underpinning its research. The BERA/SAGE Handbook of Educational Research provides a cutting edge account of the research and methodology that is creating new understandings for education research, policy and practice. Over two volumes, the handbook addresses educational research in six essential components: Section 1: Understanding Research Section 2: Planning Research Section 3: Approaches to Research Section 4: Acquiring Data Section 5: Analysing Data Section 6: Reporting, Disseminating and Evaluating Research Featuring contributions from more than 50 of the biggest names in the international field, The BERA/SAGE Handbook of Educational Research represents a very significant contribution to the development of education.
Chapter 32: Measurement
History of Educational Measurement
Measurement is fundamental to all science and research. Psychometrics is the science of measurement of the psychological; that is, measurement of attributes of people that are not physical. Educational measurement is concerned with measurement of educational attributes, which are typically described in general by terms such as ‘achievement', ‘aptitude', or ‘proficiency', or with more specific terms within a particular subject area (for example, mathematics proficiency, verbal reasoning, English proficiency, and so on). Measurement of these attributes are used to make inferences about people or to study a wide variety of phenomena related to human behavior and learning.
In this chapter we describe measurement as it is applied ...