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In survey research, there are times when information is available on every unit in the population. If a variable that is known for every unit of the population is not a variable of interest but is instead employed to improve the sampling plan or to enhance estimation of the variables of interest, it is called an auxiliary variable.

Ratio and Regression Estimation

The term auxiliary variables is most commonly associated with the use of such variables, available for all units in the population, in ratio estimation, regression estimation, and extensions (calibration estimation).

The ratio estimator is a widely used estimator that takes advantage of an auxiliary variable to improve estimation. If x is the auxiliary variable and y is the variable of interest, let x and y ...

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