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Cross-sectional data are data that are collected from participants at one point in time. Time is not considered one of the study variables in a cross-sectional research design. However, it is worth noting that in a cross-sectional study, all participants do not provide data at one exact moment. Even in one session, a participant will complete the questionnaire over some duration of time. Nonetheless, cross-sectional data are usually collected from respondents making up the sample within a relatively short time frame (field period). In a cross-sectional study, time is assumed to have random effect that produces only variance, not bias. In contrast, time series data or longitudinal data refers to data collected by following an individual respondent over a course of time.

The terms cross-sectional ...

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