It is popular to think that treatment for substance abuse and dependence consists of a 28-day inpatient stay that emphasizes the Twelve-Step model. This perception of substance use treatment is a product of the dominance of the Minnesota model that was developed by treatment providers to treat alcoholics. The model, which focuses on detoxification and rehabilitation, implies a bio-medical understanding of substance dependence. Consistently, research has demonstrated that substance dependence can and does occur without physiological changes. As a consequence, the World Health Organization and the American Psychiatric Association have made revisions to the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence to reflect these changes in scientific understanding. Currently, an individual may meet the criteria for substance dependence without exhibiting physiological changes such as tolerance or ...

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