Maternal substance abuse, as the term is used here, refers to any maternal substance use disorder ranging from substance abuse, in which the use of a substance continues despite negative consequences, to dependence, the salient feature of which is loss of control over the amount of or frequency with which the substance is consumed. Maternal substance abuse covers all of the illicit substances of abuse, as well as alcohol and tobacco. This section covers the stigma associated with and the complexity of the problem of maternal substance abuse and the effects of maternal substance abuse on embryos and fetuses, as well as on children and adolescents. Also discussed are effective treatment options and support for long-term recovery.


The stigma of addiction is particularly severe for women ...

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