Menstrual Cycle and Sports Performance

The female menstrual cycle (MC), with its alternating levels of sex steroid hormones, affects exercise capacity and performance through numerous mechanisms, such as substrate metabolism, cardiorespiratory function, thermoregulation, psychological factors, and injury rates. Female athletes and their coaches should be aware of both positive and negative influences of the MC on overall performance, on an individual basis. Athletes negatively affected by their MC can consider the use of oral contraceptives to provide a stable and controllable hormonal milieu for training and competition. It ...

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