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Russia

  • By: Saltanat Kaliyeva & Kate Makely Schechter
  • In: Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide
  • Edited by: James Ainsworth
  • Subject:Sociology of Education (general), Sociology of Education, Education Policy

The Russian Federation (hereafter Russia) spans the continents of Asia and Europe and is the largest nation, geographically, in the world. Russia has an abundance of natural resources. Harsh climate and terrain conditions make access to and exporting of these natural resources difficult and often expensive. In 2011, its population was estimated at 138.7 million, with an estimated annual growth rate in 2012 of negative 0.47 percent. The population comprises 160 different nationalities, 74 percent of which reside in urban areas. In 2011, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $16,700, with an annual growth rate of 4.3 percent. Total unemployment was 6.8 percent in 2011, while youth unemployment (ages 15 to 24) was estimated at 18.3 percent. The Gini index for 2010 was ...

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