Noncompliant Believers, Cultural Mainstreamers, and Cultural Straddlers

In her book, Keepin' It Real: School Success Beyond Black and White, sociologist Prudence Carter introduced three main concepts to characterize how low-income African American and Latino students manage their identities, cultural styles, and educational beliefs. Contending with conventional cultural depictions of low-income, minority youth in the sociology of education literature, Carter posits that students can vary ideologically in terms of how they deploy their social identities to engage in schools. The ways that these students resolve perceived differences between their collective identities as blacks and Latinos and their goals for individual achievement and personal fulfillment, Carter has argued, vary by differences in their racial and ethnic ideology. In a systematic analysis of interview and ethnographic research in a study of 68 low-income high school ...

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