One of the Arabic Middle Eastern countries, Iraq occupies an area of 169,234 square miles (437,707 square kilometers) and is bordered by Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey. Baghdad is the nation's largest city and is a center of unique historical prominence. Other major urban centers include Basrah, Mosul, and Kirkuk. The oil industry constitutes the majority of Iraq's economy. Iraq's population was over 32 million in July 2011, with Arabs comprising about three-fourths and Kurds about one-fifth of the population. The remaining Iraqis are divided into several ethnic groups, including Assyrian, Turkoman, Chaldean, Armenian, Yazidi, Sabean, and Jews.

The spoken language is Iraqi Arabic in most provinces, and Kurdish is the official language in Kurdistan. Saddam Hussein, of the Sunni Islam minority, ...

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