Along with prevention of crime, detection of the criminal is an essential police function. Before modern patrol forces developed in England and the United States, all police who operated during the daytime were detectives. The only force expected to prevent crime by their presence was the night watchmen. Though officially public officers, constables were attached to courts and received fees paid by the victim. Usually, the detective officer had connections in the underworld that were especially useful in cases of burglary or robbery. ...

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