A standard definition of science is the study of the physical universe. As indisputably legitimate sciences, such as physics and astrophysics, have become more complex, scientific views on life and the universe have grown more complex, especially for the nonexpert. Findings, claims, and theories relating to the physical universe now encompass concepts of phenomena that may only be indirectly observed, at best—for example, dark matter and dark energy, parallel universes and “multi-verses,” and “weird life” that may be nothing like terrestrial life. In the current environment, it can be difficult for nonscientists and scientists alike to determine where legitimate science ends and pseu-doscience begins and how controversial claims may be evaluated.

UFOlogy is alleged by self-described UFOlogists to consist of the scientific study of unidentified flying ...

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