Communism is a social philosophy based on the common possession of property and the elimination of private ownership. The moral basis of communism is founded on the belief that private property represents an obstacle to the creation of a genuine human community. By creating inequality and encouraging competition for the possession of scarce resources, private ownership is therefore thought to undermine cooperation and create artificial social hierarchies that benefit the powerful and cause suffering to the poor. By replacing private ownership with the common possession of the productive resources of society, communism aims to overcome social injustice and create a new society based on human cooperation.


Plato’s Republic, which is an extended meditation on the question of justice, is among the earliest discussions of communism as ...

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