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Waste can be categorized as any material or object that is discarded because it is deemed to be undesirable or unwanted by its user or owner. In natural processes, there is no waste, and therefore, the term is regarded as a human invention. First, waste is created by humans and is derived from their consumption and industrial activities. Second, it is linked to their subjective perception that something has become a waste—that is, it is perceived as unnecessary or useless. Therefore, a waste producer can be either a consumer or an organization, and waste might be regarded as a negative externality that emerges from consumption and production.

Waste generation has become one of the main challenges facing societies, and consequently, waste management is expected to ...

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