- Subject index
Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.
Chapter 8: Nonexperimental Research Methods
Nonexperimental Research Methods
Randolph Smith's chapter on Experimental Designs (see Chapter 9) indicates that experimental research, in which researchers directly manipulate independent variables (IVs) about which they seek to gather information, record changes in dependent variables (DVs), and control extraneous variables that might produce a flawed experiment, yields the strongest cause-andeffect results. However, not all research projects use the experimental method; in fact, researchers have developed a large number of nonexperimental techniques. Although they are classified as nonexperimental, these methods do not necessarily produce inferior results. The choice of a nonexperimental research strategy depends on the type of problem the researcher is interested in, where the research is conducted, and the type of data the researcher gathers. We will examine several types of ...