• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.


Since the epidemic first started in 1981, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the end-stage condition associated with infection with HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), have claimed the lives of 25 million people worldwide (Fernandez & Ruiz, 2006). It is important to note that throughout this chapter we use the term “HIV/AIDS” to refer to individuals infected with HIV as well as those individuals diagnosed with AIDS. However, we will use the term “HIV” when referring only to individuals diagnosed as being infected with HIV and “AIDS” when referring specifically to individuals whose HIV disease has progressed to AIDS. We first address the progression of HIV disease, followed by a review of prevalence of HIV and AIDS both within the United States and globally. ...

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