- Subject index
Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.
Chapter 64: Group Processes
Social psychologists have long recognized that in a variety of settings, people behave differently in groups than they would by themselves. At times, people perform more effectively and make better decisions when part of a group. Often, however, being part of a group results in reduced performance, poorer decisions, and sometimes-tragic consequences (see Janis, 1972, for examples). That groups often place great pressure on individuals to exhibit specific behaviors is particularly evident in gangs, where the consequences of defying group authority can be brutal. In other cases, group influence is subtle, and an individual may change his or her behavior because the situation is ambiguous and because the influence of others leads to alternate action (or even inaction when a response is ...