- Subject index
Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.
Chapter 54: Childhood and Adolescence
Childhood and Adolescence
The developmental processes of children and adolescents have intrigued theorists and researchers for centuries. Prior to the time of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, most people viewed children as miniature adults. During the Middle Ages children as young as six years of age were often sent off to work as apprentices in professions such as farming, blacksmithing, and carpentry. However, toward the end of the Middle Ages, the economic situation dramatically shifted; many occupations switched from requiring manual labor to necessitating academic skills. Thus, the treatment of children became refocused, away from integration with adults and toward educational instruction. This chapter is designed to introduce readers to topics (i.e., physical, cognitive, language, ...