• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.

Prenatal Development and Infancy
Prenatal development and infancy

Birth, of course, does not mark the beginning of human development; rather, development begins at conception. Although much of prenatal development occurs within the physical domain, developments in the cognitive and psychosocial domains also emerge at this time. Moreover, although these developments are driven by genetic and maturational forces, experiential factors also play an influential role during this period. Within this chapter, we address some major areas of prenatal development: sensory experience, neurobehavioral functioning, and teratogenic risks. Postnatally, the period of life known as infancy traditionally consists of the first two years following birth, and it is during this period that often dramatic and rapid developments take place in all domains. Some of the most important of these ...

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