- Subject index
Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.
Chapter 47: Memory and Eyewitness Testimony
Memory and Eyewitness Testimony
According to the Innocence Project (http://www.innocenceproject.org), created by Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld, approximately 75 percent of the wrongly convicted people who have been eventually freed from prison through forensic DNA testing were found guilty at trial because of mistaken eyewitness identifications. The results of many studies have demonstrated that witnesses can make errors when they try to describe perpetrators or identify them in lineups. However, jurors tend to trust witnesses' accounts and give them substantial weight when making decisions about defendants' guilt. Studying the variables that affect the accuracy of eyewitness memory is important because the knowledge gained could lead to better techniques for questioning witnesses and more effective evaluations of witnesses' statements.
In the 1970s, Elizabeth Loftus ...