- Subject index
Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.
Chapter 44: Intelligence
For centuries, persons making significant contributions to science, industry, art, politics, or even criminal pursuits were viewed as intelligent, whereas those who failed in school, at work, or as a member of society were thought to represent the lower end of the ability distribution. The ancient Chinese as well as the ancient Greeks recognized the importance of individual differences in ability for the selection of soldiers and civil servants. As part of modern Western culture, children and adults routinely test their abilities (intelligence) against peers via school grades, extracurricular activities (e.g., debate clubs), games of skill (e.g., chess), and even party games (e.g., Trivial Pursuit) and television shows (e.g., Jeopardy). Although the subjective assessment of intelligence has been going on since the dawn of ...