• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.

Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning

If you touch a doorknob and receive an electric shock, you will likely hesitate to touch the doorknob again. If you eat an exotic food and later feel sick to your stomach, you will likely avoid consuming that food in the future. You use your previous experience with the world to determine your future behavior. This capacity is partially due to the process of classical conditioning.

The Discovery of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning was first extensively studied by Ivan Pavlov (1927) in the early 20th century. Pavlov was a Russian physiologist interested in the processes of digestion, specifically the production of saliva and gastric juices that result from tasting food. His subjects (dogs) were restrained and meat powder was placed on their tongue; the ...

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