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Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.

Olfaction
Olfaction

When you sniff an odor you probably believe that your experience is a direct result of what you are smelling—that is, the stimulus dictates what you smell. Many olfactory scientists held this commonsense view until fairly recently, but it is looking increasingly wrong. Rather, what one smells appears to be defined by what the stimulus reminds your olfactory system of. If you smell caramel, for example, it smells sweet, yet sweetness is a quality associated with a completely different sensory system—taste. Therefore this experience of a “tasty smell” must be a consequence of memory. This point is made most strikingly when olfactory memory itself is damaged, leaving patients able to smell but unable to experience an odor's unique quality. That is, roses and gasoline, ...

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