• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Via 100 entries, 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of psychology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume reference resource, available both in print and online, provides an authoritative source to serve students’ research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but without the jargon, detail, or density found in a typical journal article or a research handbook chapter. Students will find chapters contained within these volumes useful as aids toward starting research for papers, presentations, or a senior thesis, assisting in deciding on areas for elective coursework or directions for graduate studies, or orienting themselves toward potential career directions in psychology.


Psychology has roots in both philosophy and biology. This dual relation with philosophy and biology is probably most evident with sensation and perception. Philosophers have been interested in sensation and perception since our senses put us in contact with the external world; our perceptions are our representations of the external world. René Descartes believed that perception was among our innate abilities. John Locke and other empiricists, however, argued against innate abilities, instead suggesting that knowledge is based on experience obtained through the senses or by reflection on residual sensory stimulation. Locke separated our experiences into primary and secondary qualities. Primary qualities are inherent to an object (e.g., size) whereas secondary qualities are added to an object (e.g., color). George Berkeley disagreed with Locke's notion ...

  • Loading...
locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles