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Neurotransmission involves the sharing of information within the nervous system from one neuron, or nerve cell, to another membrane (i.e., another neuron, muscle, or gland). This process entails a passage of electrical and chemical information from one neuron to many other neurons or organs. In order to explain the process of neurotransmission, we must first understand the key components of the neuron, the characteristics of the neuronal membrane, the process of stimulating the cell, the action potential, and neurotransmitter release.

Parts of a Neuron

The human body contains approximately 100 billion neurons with cell bodies ranging in size from 6–8 µm to 80 µm in diameter (Kandel, 1991). Researchers have divided neurons into three main categories based on function: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Sensory ...

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