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Time perspective (TP) is the often non-conscious process whereby the continual flow of personal and social experiences are parcelled into temporal categories, or time frames, that help to give order, coherence, and meaning to those life events. These cognitive frames may reflect cyclical, repetitive temporal patterns or unique, non-recurring linear events in our lives. They are used in encoding, storing, and recalling experienced events, as well as in forming expectations, goals, contingencies, and imaginative scenarios. Between the abstract, psychological constructions of prior past and anticipated future events lies the concrete, empirically centred representation of the present action moment.

When a tendency develops to habitually overemphasize past, future, or present temporal frames when making decisions, it serves as a cognitive temporal ‘bias’ toward being past, future, or ...

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