FIRST DEVELOPED by the Italian Marxist theorist Antonio Gramsci during the late 1920s and 1930s while he was in prison as an opponent to fascism, the concept of hegemony has enjoyed vast popularity throughout the 20th century. Gramsci used the term in his Prison Notebooks where he explored the reasons that had led the Italian working-class to desert democracy and embrace fascism. The concept of hegemony has not remained restricted to political theory but has been widely applied to a number of cultural fields and disciplines from history to literary studies, from media to film theory.

Gramsci's hegemony is synonymous with social control and defines the winning of consent to unequal class relations, which it instead makes appear as natural and fair. Dominant elites in society, ...

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