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Statistical testing is common in clinical settings as a method for drawing inferences for an unknown population value based on a sample of subjects. A clinician may wish, for instance, to test the hypothesis that a new surgical technique reduces the probability of adverse postoperative outcome or that, on average, a new drug reduces blood glucose in diabetics. Many types of statistical tests exist, and selection of an appropriate test is guided by the type of data collected, the statistics for which inferences are desired, the number of groups under study, and the sample size.

General Testing Procedure

Implementation of a statistical test begins with the specification of distinct hypotheses; a null hypothesis (denoted by H0) is assumed to be true, and the test is performed to ...

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